5-MeO-DMT, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, O-methyl-bufotenin or 2-(5-Methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine, is a tryptamine-based psychedelic. While this compound has been found in one toad species and numerous plants, it was first discovered and synthesized in 1936 by two Japanese chemists named Hoshino and Shimodaira.
In its synthesized form, 5-MeO-DMT is known as Jaguar or “Jag” for short. Psychedelic pioneer Ralph Metzner coined this name in his 2013 book, The Toad and the Jaguar.
A crystalline powder material, Jaguar usually presents itself in a white to slightly off-white beige color. Also referred to as “The Pure Molecule,” the use of Jaguar ceremonially has been gaining popularity both as a safer and more sustainable way to experience 5-MeO-DMT.
Also naturally produced within nature, 5-MeO-DMT can be found within the parotoid glands of the Sonoran Desert toad, also known as Incilius alvarius or Bufo Alvarius toad. The secretion is ethically milked from the first two parotoid glands, expressed onto a piece of glass, and dried where it is collected for later use. The dried venom is pale, translucent in color, and has a texture similar to dried plastic cement. Containing anywhere from 10% – 30% 5-MeO-DMT, the secretion also contains up to a dozen other tryptamines and alkaloids, some of which are cardiotoxic to humans.
It is important to note that while 5-MeO-DMT is related to dimethyltryptamine (DMT), they are two very different compounds. With the addition of a methoxy group in the R5-MeO position, 5-MeO-DMT is considerably more potent and produces an exceptionally different experience to DMT (more on those later.) In the interests of psychological and physical safety, it is vital to understand that these are two very different substances and should be treated as such.
The most common plant sources of 5-MeO-DMT are Anadenanthera peregrina (yopo) and Virola theiodora. Both are used in Central and South America to make psychoactive snuff used in traditional shamanic and entheogenic contexts by Indigenous people.